My research interest has focused primarily on Creativity, what it is, and how it is related to society, education, and other aspects of life including intelligence. In 2005, I conducted and published a meta-analysis study synthesizing studies that were published between 1965 and 2005 regarding the relationship between creativity and intelligence. My results show that there is a negligible relationship between the two, meaning that even without high IQ we can still be creative as long as we have the ability to master knowledge and skills in one specific domain.

Further, I wanted to know more about the relationship between creativity and intelligence regarding changes over time. The famous Flynn Effect had shown us that IQ had increased worldwide, so I was curious if there was a similar trend in creativity scores. If creativity and intelligence are the same thing, then creativity would have increased, too.

I used the scores from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)-Figural. The TTCT is a creativity test, not a divergent thinking test, and it has been translated to almost 40 different languages in the world. It is the most widely used and researched creativity test and the most reliable and valid creativity test among those currently available. It was developed in the 1950s by E. Paul Torrance, who is referred as “the Father of Creativity.” The TTCT has been updated six times since then. The scores measure creativity, and also how the test subject is creative, and identify strengths and weaknesses in creative thinking and creative attitudes.
My test sample included a total of 272,599 TTCT scores from Kindergartners though adults including: 3,150 from 1966; 19,111 from 1974; 37,814 from 1984; 88,355 from 1990; 54,151 from 1998; and 70,018 from 2008. These participants represent all regions of the United States over time. I also used the scores of participants from Canada.

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